Benjamin Boutell, A True Son of Michigan

A flat-bottomed boat lazed along the river’s bank on a summer day in 1860. An observer could be forgiven for not realizing the lone occupant was a youth who would grow to dominate two Michigan industries, log towing and sugar manufacturing and foster a number of companies in other industries that would add immeasurable wealth to Michigan’s developing economy.

The skiff bobbed in a ceaseless to-and-fro motion, influenced by waves that washed against the bank and then receded in accordance with the movement of steamers and sloops that churned the Saginaw River’s channel. Its skipper, sixteen-year loi bai hat -old Benjamin Boutell, sighed in sleepy contentment. The rocking motion of the river lulled him deeper into slumber as he basked in the sun’s warmth, dreaming of sea adventures in which he was the central figure.

He did not hear the sounds of sawing and hammering, the hailing of ships from shore, and other boisterous dock activity common to Bay City, Michigan in 1860. In ten years, the city’s population had exploded from a mere fifty souls to more than three thousand, with more arriving each day from Canada or Detroit to take jobs in one of fifteen sawmills clustered on the riverbank. Before the lumber drew to a close forty years later, thirty thousand people would call Bay City home and more than one hundred sawmills lined the riverbanks from Bay City to Saginaw, twelve miles distant.

His father, Daniel Boutell, owned one of the hotels situated within hailing distance at the southeast corner of Water and Third streets. Not long before it had been the Sherman House. Situated across from the Detroit Steamboat Company’s landing, it was often the first stop for newcomers to the city. Daniel Boutell had moved his family thirty miles north from Birch Run to take over the hotel, and after extensive renovations hung a new shingle near the entrance. Now it was the Boutell House, a home away from home for Great Lakes sailors who were made to feel more like family guests than hotel patrons because many of the Boutells’ nine children shared the hotel with them

Fascinated by the stories the sailors told, Ben grew to love the river and the great Saginaw Bay, the doorway to the Great Lakes, a doorway he planned to pass through one day. Meanwhile, he earned his way by remaining on call to the Protection Fire Company where he served as first assistant foreman and helped his father at the hotel where he badgered sailors with questions about schooners, sloops, barges, and tugboats. An infectious grin and a sincere interest loosened tongues of sailors who enjoyed Ben’s enthusiasm; they gladly shared accounts of their adventures and knowledge of all things nautical.

Having learned much about the nature of goods that moved from port to port on the Great Lakes, he began to pay special attention to the movement of logs towed by powerful tugboats. The task of moving felled trees to mills situated in one of the state’s principal sawmill towns, Saginaw, Bay City, or Muskegon, was critical to the success of the timber industry. Water transport provided the least costly solution. Logs carved from Michigan’s forests were floated downstream, collected at river mouths, sorted into floating corrals, called “booms,” and towed by tugboats to sawmills that lined the river from Saginaw to Bay City. From forests along Canada’s Georgian Bay shoreline, tugboats towed booms containing thousands of logs across Lake Huron and into the Saginaw Bay for shipment to waiting sawmills.

Tugboat captains faced many perils: sudden storms that would threaten to shatter the delicate lacing of logs that formed the boom, shipboard disasters, exploding boilers, and fires that could leave crews abandoned to chilling water far from rocky shores. The idea of taking the helm of such a craft fired the imagination of the hotelkeeper’s son.

His ambition gained impetus in his twenty-first year when fire destroyed the Boutell House. Dan Boutell fought the blaze until only smoldering rubble remained. His lungs seared by smoke, he declined in health until death claimed him the following year. The family’s livelihood in peril, Ben immediately signed on as a full-time sailor on the steam tug Wave. Within the year, he was the Wave’s mate and in the following year earned papers conferring upon him the responsibilities of a ship’s master.

As Captain Boutell, he assumed command of the Ajax, a steam tug that had lately become the property of the First National Bank of Bay City. The bank had acquired it in the manner banks often acquire assets – via defaulted notes. The twenty-two-year-old novice captain enlisted the aid of an engineer named Samuel Jones, whose salary, like the captain’s, was conditional upon the ship’s revenue, and a cook he addressed with affection as Aunt Kitty and who possessed both an impressive girth and a disposition for adventure. Ben, Jones, and Aunt Kitty ran the tug that fall with Ben handling with equal ease mundane chores such as cutting wood for its boiler and management of the boat’s business. The trio cleared for the owners $6,000 (about $84 thousand in 2009 dollars), giving the young captain a reputation as a can-do ship’s master with a first-rate knowledge of the Great Lakes.

Bold competence won the attention of Captain William Mitchell, master of the tug Union. Mitchell admired the rangy youth with the engaging smile whose energy seemed to expand to meet any challenge. The two became fast friends and business partners, acquiring over time a fleet of tugboats, barges, schooners, and freight haulers that eventually numbered more than fifty. Boutell organized great rafts containing as much as four million board feet of lumber, making him the single greatest hauler of timber of the lumber era. Altogether, log rafting and other towing work for his tugs employed the services of five hundred people. He counted himself among them. Even as his assets and his reputation grew, he stayed on at the helm of one tug or another, five years alone as captain of the Annie Moiles, until finally responsibilities created by his rapidly growing wealth kept him on shore.

Although Ben never left behind the boy who probed the riverbanks aboard a small skiff, the capital he amassed as boat owner and captain on Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Huron, and the Georgian Bay would eventually generate additional fortunes. When Ben Boutell, William Mitchell, and future partner, Peter Smith linked themselves to the lumber industry they had tied themselves to a star that would rise but a little distance before flaming out. When the white pine forests melted under the onslaught of axes and saws, the need for Boutell’s tugs disappeared. For a time it was his plan to continue where he had begun, hauling logs from Canada. However, prohibitive duties ended any hope of profiting from Canadian timber. With a sinking heart, Ben, who once transported an average of one hundred million board feet of timber in a season, watched his boats loiter at the docks.




South Carolina Real Estate – Past and Present Collide

With tons of history and modern development, South Carolina is a unique state. South Carolina real estate is also unique because prices are so low.

South Carolina

It would be an understatement to say South Carolina played a major role in the Civil War. Battles raged across the land and the state has done much to preserve the history. While maintaining this history, South Carolina has also looked to the future. The state is the home of top notch resorts, golf courses by the billions and pristine beaches.


Located on the Atlantic Ocean, Charleston is a city with a ton of history. Arguably, the Civil War started in Charleston via Fort Sumter, which is located in the harbor. A major shipping port during those times, the city is now one of the most attractive in the United States. The architectural style is definitely old south, but with a mix of influences. Certain areas of the town feel like New Orleans with garden areas and hanging patios. Other areas have a distinct Caribbean feel and yet others are stereotypical old south manner homes. Charleston is definitely a hot spot Myrtle Beach Real Estate if you are considering living the South.

Myrtle Beach

Myrtle Beach is a take it or leave it place. The beaches are beautiful, but the area is severely over-commercialized. The area is family friendly most of the year, but the beach has become a hot spot for college students during spring break. If you don’t mind the ruckus, Myrtle Beach should be considered as a relocation spot because you will not find cheaper beach real estate prices anywhere.

South Carolina Real Estate

Considering the great location, South Carolina real estate is cheap, cheap, and cheap. Single-family homes average under $200,000 throughout the state with the exception of Charleston and the luxury resorts. A home in Charleston will average $300,000 while property in the resort areas varies wildly.

Appreciation rates for South Carolina are neither great nor terrible. For 2005, property has appreciated at an average of eight percent, but varies by location.




Dieting for Females – Typical Guidelines

efore we get in the advised diet programs for Females endeavoring to eliminate Extra fat and acquire lean muscle, let’s go in excess of some normal diet program pointers.Calorie ManagementThe most significant Consider a eating plan is energy in as opposed to energy out; your whole energy will identify should you eliminate or achieve fat. Ingesting a lot of calories will result in Fats get. But if you don’t try to eat sufficient energy you won’t obtain lean muscle mass. Placing a focus on calorie consumption and counting the amount of calories you consume each day is vital to dropping Extra fat and getting lean muscle.

Macronutrient Manipulation
Though your whole caloric consumption is the most important diet plan factor, the ratio of protein to carbs to Excess fat can dictate whether the pounds you achieve/get rid of is muscle or Fats. A diet program that contains 80% of calories from carbs, 10% from protein, and ten% from Fats will produce unique final results than a diet program made up of 40% of energy from carbs, 40% from protein, and 20% from Fats.

Continue to be Hydrated
You ought to drink an abundance of water every day. Attempt to consume at the very least 8 glasses (or 64 oz.) of water each day. The advantages ingesting drinking water provides are exceptional hydration as well as a experience of “fullness” without having additional calories. In some cases people today will miscalculation thirst for hunger. For this reason, staying hydrated also can stop overeating.

Good quality Management
Decide on contemporary, wholesome foods more than pre-packaged, processed foods. Packaged foods are loaded with preservatives, Primarily sodium and saturated fats, and infrequently have high quantities of sugars, such as substantial fructose corn syrup. You will be impressed at how fast you can lose Body fat just by packing meals from home rather then obtaining speedy food or packaged foods. Additionally you will help you save a lot of money!

Insulin Handle
Insulin is the “storage” hormone. When it is actually secreted Unwanted fat burning is blunted. By controlling insulin secretion by deciding upon minimal GI carbs you could minimize fat acquire/boost Fats loss. Stable blood sugar ranges also make improvements to energy ranges and types temper. All of our meal plans as centered all over insulin control, resulting in leaner muscle mass gains with tiny to no fat gain.

Adequate Protein
In an effort to get lean muscle mass you should try to eat plenty of protein to maintain the creation of recent muscle mass proteins. You may not be accustomed to feeding on the level of protein our prescribed eating plan recommends, but when you finally get in the groove you should not have any difficulties and may get pleasure from how whole and happy you are feeling.

Necessary Fats
Necessary fatty acids (EFAs) are important to the right operating on One’s body. Dietary fats obtained a bad rap as a result of diet regime fads with the eighty’s and 90’s, which promoted ingesting as minor Extra fat as feasible, but Actually EFAs are essential by the human body and are Component of a balanced diet plan. Eating fats would not equate to receiving Extra fat. The truth is, most EFAs support guidance the Excess fat burning procedure and preserving a lean human body. Will not be afraid to take in superior fats. EFAs aren’t the enemy. Also, make sure to health supplement with an outstanding EFA product or service, like Scivation Necessary FA.

Women of all ages tend not to must diet plan Considerably in a different way than Adult men. A single metabolic distinction between Gentlemen and women is Girls burn a better ratio of Excess fat to carbs than Guys, that’s The rationale why women often do extremely well on the small carb food plan. Because of this fact we suggest Women of all ages observe a very low-carb (not no carb) diet plan to shed Excess fat and obtain toned, lean muscle mass.Exactly what is the most typical matter you see Girls do while in the health club? Cardio. And whenever they do elevate weights the pick up a 5 pound dumbbell and do limitless reps. As Now we have discussed, Ladies really need to carry heavy, demanding weights just like men  effort to achieve muscle. Even though devices do give sufficient stimulation to get muscle mass, almost nothing can beat free-pounds/compound workouts. Now, We are going to go above a handful of no cost-body weight and compound exercises that we’ll integrate in the weight training presented.

Deadlifts are a complete human body exercise, meaning it stimulates just about just about every muscle in your body. Deadlifts strike the legs, again, traps, abs, ob Monkey  liques, etc. Deadlifts are essential for creating a absolutely created entire body. If you don’t do them, you’re offering your results shorter.

Squats are Potentially the best exercise you can do for In general leg improvement. No cost-bodyweight barbell squats certainly are a compound exercising that hits the whole upper leg, quadriceps, hamstrings, and glutes. Like deadlifts, if you don’t squat you will be offering by yourself short. They’re a must for alluring, toned legs.


The tin can is dead – long live recyclable food pouches


Metal jars were created more than 200 years prior. After the presentation of the cannery—a proficient creation line that these days can fill around 300 jars for every moment—metal jars immediately turned into the food protection strategy for decision.

Posted March 12, 2018

There were a couple of early stage struggles to move beyond however. It took 40 years for somebody to develop the tin opener and after a touch of reputational harm, it was in the end chosen to quit utilizing toxic weld to seal them.

Jars give long periods of encompassing stockpiling insurance which—when there’s restricted admittance to refrigeration—makes them ideal for leaving inside a dugout at wartime or the rear of an organizer for a blustery day.

Nonetheless, the metal can was anticipated to be drafted into the abrogates of history with the advancement of food pockets in 1978.

Food pockets guaranteed the buyer:

broadened timeframe of realistic usability

convenient, space-sparing compact food

a superior taste to canned food

resealable potential for item protection

diminished item wastage

simple open bundling

furthermore, for producer/providers:

improved vertically showed realistic introduction for expanded eye-bid

lightweight and space-putting something aside for conveyance, stockpiling and show

multiportion packs for single use sauces in food administration and cafés

less expensive than unbending plastics

less energy needed to create than metal jars

However, it wasn’t until 1999 that these progressive bundling items truly made it onto the grocery store racks—and that was for pet food.

19 additional years has passed by things actually haven’t moved a lot further. After a touch of statistical surveying (a chase around my neighborhood store)

I spotted infant nourishments, microwave rice, pet food and ice cream parlor in pockets—which isn’t actually control from the beneficiary evident. However food pockets are anticipated to have a blast in reception. Some may consider it a future super pattern.

Worldwide licensed innovation information, sourced from the PatSnap stage, shows 726 basic patent families connected to food pocket innovative work.

We can see the overall pattern has seen around 25-35 licenses recorded every year in the course of recent years. Scarcely the regular J-bend of the following enormous thing.

Award rates crested in 2012 at 51%—despite the fact that they are right now on the decrease with just 1 of every 4 patent applications being conceded. What’s more, the USA is driving the charge for patent filings.

The global patent characterization patterns for licenses recorded in the previous five years are dominatingly:

B32B27 – Layered items containing manufactured pitch

B65D81 – Containers for substance with transport/stockpiling issues

B65D75 – Packages with articles encased in material

It appears to be that on a fundamental level, huge numbers of the establishments are set up for the crowning liturgy. However the metal can isn’t prepared to repudiate its position—not until the pocket can answer a couple of significant concerns. Luckily, protected innovation information shows why the bundling and plastics monsters are leveling up the royal gems—and it may very well occur for genuine this time.

Plastics aren’t awful

Plastic has made some intense memories regarding notoriety. As indicated by the Ellen Macarthur Foundation 40% of plastic waste goes directly to landfill and a stunning 32% is spilling into the climate. It’s anticipated that by 2050 there will be more plastic in the ocean than fish.

Early adopters of the food pocket included child nourishments and sodas. They for the most part utilized blended material pockets. Blended material pockets offered broadened timeframe of realistic usability items—yet these pockets are famously testing to reuse.

Some bundling producers give off an impression of being tolerating the cost factor of reasonable current bundling. Many have initiated the move away from metal film layers—supplanting them with all-plastic pockets that customers can reuse on the doorstep.

Recyclable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is quick turning into the bundling material of decision for some food and drink makers. As indicated by a report by Smithers Pira, PET bundling is estimate to arrive at 21.2 million tons by 2021. Supportability and weight are relied upon to be their significant improvement contemplations.

Mindful we just have this one planet, reliable customers are searching for feasible bundling—biodegradables, recyclables and compostables—with a negligible carbon impression. Along these lines, producers should be on top of this market-request change and guarantee the framework to change from blended materials to all plastic pockets is set up.

Cost and speed

Producers remain to profit by this move away from jars and other inflexible bundling. Receiving adaptable, lightweight holders for items can lessen circulation and capacity costs impressively—sparing, conceivably, up to 90% on bed and distribution center space. Yet, that is not saying there aren’t some option monetary difficulties.

Beside the expenses for food bundling producers to supplant their hardware, the crude materials for metal jars are less expensive—around $0.01 penny versus pockets which right now start around $0.08 pennies.

As recently referenced, a decent cannery can fill 300 jars for each moment. A pocket rounding machine maximizes at around 200 every moment. That is a profitability deficiency of conceivably 50 million units for every year. What’s more, this could viably motivation a monetary loss of over $6.8 million every year.

For any sprouting creator who truly needs to discover an incentive in food pockets, this is a conceivably tremendous impetus.

Genuine food

The Instagram age is pulling back from additives and fake fixings and toward shop counters and vegetable walkways. In spite of the fact that the idea of millennial shopping and dietary patterns, proposes they’re vigorously adding to the 7 million tons of food wastage delivered in the UK every year.

Cryovac has a response for the recent college grads. It is the food bundling division of Sealed Air Corp (creators of Bubble Wrap), and the most productive licensing organization endeavoring to consummate food pockets. Cryovac presently claims 46 licenses identifying with this particular territory.

“US20140314920A1—Multilayer film having aloof and dynamic oxygen hindrance layers”, worth an expected $4.3 million. It has 24 individual patent reports universally ensuring the substance of this patent—and this patent might stay legitimate for an additional 15 years.

It subtleties a multilayer film with a functioning oxygen boundary center sandwiched between two inactive or dynamic hindrance layers. One variety of its arrangement contains thermoplastic gum with carbon-carbon twofold bonds, a change metal salt, and an oxygen obstruction polymer. The different layers’ oxygen ingestion limit brings about an augmentation of the helpful time span of usability for staples.

While Cryovac may have the biggest volume of licenses, there’s different patenters taking care of such issues as well.

Curwood, presently possessed by Bemis, imagined “US8530012—Packaging articles, movies and strategies that advance or safeguard the alluring shade of meat” worth an expected $8.1 million—the most important patent for food pockets. The patent portrays food bundling that contains a myoglobin blossoming specialist and an oxygen boundary layer to guarantee new meat holds an appealing surface tone while expanding timeframe of realistic usability.

Tainting chances

Metal jars are impermeable. ‘Blown’ jars are anything but difficult to spot because of the expanding/blasts that happen with bacterial deterioration. Pockets then again have possible ruin and defilement chances from pinholes, flex breaks or helpless sealings.


The Advantages of a Dental Bridge

There are several methods for replacing a missing tooth, including a dental implant, dentures, or a dental bridge. A quick fix that is relatively inexpensive is called a dental bridge.

Because something has to hold the replacement tooth (called a pontic) in place, a bridge attaches to the two adjacent teeth. The dentist can construct both a permanent and a temporary bridge. Depending upon which you prefer or your particular situation, the dentist will recommend one over the other.

There are two basic types of bridges available. The first type requires the permanent alteration of your adjacent teeth. The tooth on either side of the gap must be trimmed back substantially. The altered teeth will have a permanent crown mounted on them. The bridge will then span the gap, holding the artificial tooth.

The second type of bridge is often called a Maryland bridge. It does not permanently alter the teeth on either side of the gap. Instead, the dentist will permanently attach the pontic by using “wings” that attach to the rear of the adjacent teeth. Depending upon where in your mouth the replacement tooth is located, the bridge could have two or four wings holding it secure.

There are two drawbacks to a Maryland bridge. First, it is weaker than the other type of bridge and is prone to breaking or coming unglued. Second, the replacement tooth cannot be translucent. Due to the metal wiring behind it, a translucent tooth could be unsightly. In addition, the metal wiring tends to cast a grey hue over the adjacent teeth. There is a replacement tooth available that is reinforced with natural-colored plastic wings, but it is substantially more expensive. However, considering it is your smile we are talking about, the additional cost may be worth it for you.


Cool Kids Clothing – Protect Your Child in The Summer

Children should always wear fun, colorful, comfortable and durable yet cool kids clothing. Today, many clothing stores are focusing on designing clothes exclusively for children. Parents now have many options while buying clothes for their children.

Many stores now design clothes for the different seasons. There are many shops that sell summer clothes that protect your child from the harsh sun. These cool kids clothing are available in many online stores. Sunscreens can be easily washed off in children as they sweat in the heat. Sunscreen protection clothing is a better option that can help protect your child from the sun during play-time or while splashing about in the pool.

How The Sun Affects Your Skin

The sun gives out three main types of ultraviolet rays towards Earth, which can damage your skin. The three types of ultraviolet rays are: UVA, UVB, and UVC. UVA are the most common form of rays, which cause cancer and form wrinkles on your skin. UVB rays are more severe and cause cataract and may affect your immune system. UVB rays also cause sunburns before the age of 20, which is why it is essential to protect your child from the sun. UVC rays are very damaging, but the ozone layer does not allow these rays to reach us.

Protect Your Child

All children need protection from the sun, regardless of the temperature outside or their skin tone. Cool kids clothing along with a good sunscreen is the best option for your child. Sunscreen clothing, contrary to popular misconceptions, is quite fashionable, and offers all-day SPF 30 protection. These clothing lines include clothes, hats, gloves, and umbrellas.

These ultra high-tech sunscreen clothes are озон интернет магазин designed to block the harmful rays of the sun. Just like sunscreen, there are SPF and UPF rating for these clothes. Some of these protective clothes even have special features like air vents in the underarm areas, roll-up collars that protect the neck, and cuffs with hand flaps that are retractable.


Most of these sun protection clothing are made with tightly-woven fabric and are made from synthetic fibers like cotton, nylon, and polyester. Nylon is the most popular fiber used to make sun-protective clothing for kids.

While these cool kids clothing cannot substitute using sun-protection items like a hat or sunscreen, they can be used along with these options to help protect your child’s skin from an early age. By taking care of your child’s skin in the early days, you can help prevent them getting skin cancer when they are adults.




How To Increase and Learn Spanish Vocabulary

When talking about communication and words, the more you know, the better it is. The 64 million dollar question is how to increase the amount of words you know. Many times, people try lots of tricks to help out, but they never seem to work. There would of course be additions to their list, but they often forget them as soon as they learn a new word. What can be done? Can you increase your vocabulary easily?

Tip 1.The truth is, building vocabulary is not an easy task, but there are certainly ways to get around the words and stick them to your mind for your future use. Here is how you can do it: Go and buy some newspapers, magazines and books in Spanish Pay attention to how the words are used in order to understand their Spanish Magazine  meaning. Resort to a dictionary only when you can’t figure out the meaning of the word by its context. Don’t interrupt your reading flow though checking the dictionary every 2 minutes. Just a note: for vocabulary-building purposes, stay clear of textbooks. Spanish vocabulary usage is much easier understood using books, newspapers and magazines as a reference.

Tip 2. Use the words. You can’t make use of 50 new words if you don’t take them out of the back of your mind. You can try and make sure you use a new word 3 to 10 times a day. You should try it. Practice using them in sentences. Use them in your conversations. Of course, some words might be out of place, but if the person you speak to knows you are learning to speak Spanish, he will most likely assume you are practicing. And he would certainly not think your nuts. Don’t be afraid of practicing what you are learning. If not, those new words will just rot away and be of no real use.

Tip 3. Engage in conversations. Find someone with who you can practice speaking with. It can be a fellow student, or a Spanish-speaking friend. Never go through the day without using some Spanish Look at forums and other places on the internet where you can meet Spanish speaking people and email or chat with them. Writing is also as effective as speaking in improving your vocabulary.

Tip 4. Don’t get caught up in only trying to improve your vocabulary forgetting the reason you are learning in the first place. Don’t make the mistake of cramming your head with stuff you don’t need and will never use. To make your efforts to learn Spanish vocabulary more orderly, prioritize and collect first the words that correspond to your purpose for learning. To explain, if you are learning in order to fill an academic job, learn the vocabulary for that job. If you’re proficient enough, learning other words happens easily.




Expungement of Criminal Records in Washington State – 7 Steps to Clearing Your Record

You don’t have to be stuck with a criminal conviction on your record. Your Washington State criminal conviction can be expunged if you meet the criteria. And after your conviction is expunged, Washington State law permits you to state you have not been convicted for employment purposes.

Expungement is an often misunderstood term and process. In Washington State expungement of a criminal record or criminal conviction is accomplished by Vacating the Criminal Conviction. The terms Expungement and Vacating are largely interchangeable, the difference being that Vacating is the legal term.

Expungement of a criminal record by vacating the conviction does not destroy or seal the file. However, it is possible to destroy, or expunge, an arrest record if the eligibility requirements are met. When an arrest record is expunged, the booking photos and fingerprints are destroyed and removed from the police record.

In Washington State, the expungement process differs between felony and misdemeanor convictions. The following 7 steps are an overview of what is involved.

1. The Required Time Period has Passed Since the Case Completed.

The first eligibility requirement to expunge your conviction in Washington State is passage of the required time period. For a misdemeanor, the time period begins to run on the date the case is Closed. For a felony conviction, the time period begins to run on the date a document called a Certificate of Discharge is filed with the court. In both instances, a case is Closed or a Certificate of Discharge is filed after all the sentence conditions are completed as required.



The Best School for Sonography Study in Washington D.C.

Diagnostic Medical Sonographers will appreciate the fact that Washington D.C. has an extensive system of hospitals, outpatient clinics, research centers and physician offices. Healthcare is one of the top industries in the District of Columbia. This is also an exciting area for students and working sonographers because it is the U.S. Capital. The city is filled with impressive attractions like the Lincoln Memorial, the National Gallery of Art, and the National Mall where so many historic events have taken place. This is also a culturally rich city that has a variety of theaters like the National Theatre; artistic groups like the Washington Ballet company; and a variety of restaurants offering foods from around the world.

Sonography Education in Washington D.C.

The Washington District of Columbia has one Diagnostic Medical Sonography program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation for Allied Health Programs (CAAHEP) that is located at George Washington University. However, it should be noted that the last class graduates in 2014. Fortunately, there are equally accessible accredited program options near Washington D.C.



Phoenix History

Phoenix has the hottest weather of any American city. Naturally, Phoenix air conditioning contractors and soft drink vendors do a thriving business, since the summer temperatures average over 100° Fahrenheit and occasionally have reached 120° Fahrenheit. With these temperatures a Phoenix air conditioner is a must. Over a million and a half people live in Phoenix, which was founded in 1868 where the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers join together. Over the past half-century Phoenix has become a major transportation hub, as well as the industrial, financial, and cultural center of the American Southwest. The area now occupied by Phoenix was originally settled a millennium ago by the Hohokam people, who built over 130 miles of irrigation canals, which enabled them to cultivate maize, beans, and squash in the desert. The original Hohokam canals were rebuilt in modern times to become the Arizona Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, and the Central Arizona Project Canal. The Hohokam people carried on extensive trade with the nearby Mogollon and Anasazi tribes. Archeologists believe that sometime during the fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries there were periods of alternating droughts and floods, which led the Hohokam to abandon the area. Some Akimel O’odham peoples continued to occupy the area along the Gila River, but they no longer built towns.

The Phoenix area was visited by Spanish conquistadores in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, but European settlement didn’t really commence until the beginning of the nineteenth century, when “Mountain Men” seeking beaver, otter, deer, and wolf pelts arrived in the area. Mexico ceded Arizona to the United States after the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848. What is now Phoenix was originally Fort McDowell, established in 1865 to quell Native American uprisings. An early settler, Jack Swilling, arrived in the area in 1867 and after observing the ruins of ancient canals realized that the area would be perfect for farming by irrigation. Swilling constructed canals following the courses of the original Hohokam system, and soon a thriving agricultural community arose.